Introduction The new periodicity The comparison of the models Outlook Sources
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The new periodicity

The coefficients of the Listzinschen polynomials The isoelectronic series The other periodicity

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The periodicity

By the current state of scientific knowledge in today's presentation of the periodic table the elements are lined up according to their atomic number. The periodicity of the elements is justified by their chemical properties. Each period begins with an alkali metal which contains only one valence electron and is consequently monovalent. Each period ends with a noble gas. Noble gases own a completed outer shell and therefore are chemically inert. The first period is an exception, it does not start with an alkali metal but with the element hydrogen.

In the Figure below shows the periodic table in today’s presentation:

In the following Figure, the elements are divided into periods, like it can be deduced from the coefficient alfa of the isoelectronic presentation in rows. The periods are formed by the elements of “equal” coefficients. Furthermore, the fine structure of the isoelectronic series is accommodated by presenting the elements of one unit (2,3,3) to another separately. (with a small distance). This kind of presentation is consistent with the classification into main- and sub groups. The main group of each period in each case contains the first eight elements of the period.

In this representation of the periodic table, simply the gradient of the isoelectronic series is used for the classification of the system. The parameter β produces the fine structure of the system.

The most striking difference to the current view on the periodic table is that at the end of the period there doesn’t necessarily have to be a noble gas. From the second period on it is possible to form a block of eight elements with which the periods begin. From the third period on, further sub-groups are added to the eight-block: Starting with two groups of five and going on with adding two groups of seven and on often in the fifth and sixth period.

Periodic table

figure 01

In the next figure, the oxidation numbers (coherence) are specified. It is easy to see that oxidation numbers allow the modified group.

The oxidation numbers of the elements in the upper figure show characteristic qualities that support a periodization like the one in the upper figure. The first element of each period only has one valence electron with one exception: gold (Au), where also the oxidation number three is possible. But apart from this, the oxidation numbers of in the first eight groups show consistent characteristics. The eighth group is filled with inert gases.

Surprisingly periods continue after the noble gases, from the chemical point of view, the periods ended in the traditional period system. A noble gas holds a closed shell and therefore neither delivers electrons nor is it disposed to give any. The continuation of periods, in which after the noble gases more elements accompany, only goes on in the third period. Each first element of the sub groups just holds one valence electron. The elements of the second subgroup hold two valence electrons, those from the third one the and so forth. Approaching the end of the sub groups, the number of valence electrons falls.

The new interpretation of the peridoc table can be divided in two groups: The main group, enclosing the first eight elements of a period and the sub group which follows directly after the noble gas group. Differently from the main group, the sub groups contain a variable number of elements. Referred to the valence electrons, the two subgroups of the periods 3 and 4 are similar to the main groups. But the structure of the main- and sub groups are different fundamentally.

This is to show that the oxidation numbers of the elements reflect in the classification of the isoelectric series.