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Introduction


the isoelectronic series The second degree polynomials of the isoelectronic the isoelectronic series and their ionized states

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Introduction

Mendeljew and Meyer found the key to the order of the elements in 1869 independently. They discovered that not the mass of the elements but the atomic number, the proton number of the elements is crucial for its place in the periodic table. They arranged the elements referring to the increasing atomic number, like pearls on a string. According to Mendeljew and Meyer, the chemical properties of elements are only the second criteria of the arrangement of the elements. From the chemical properties of the elements, the periodicity of the order of the elements was discharged. Amongst other things, behind the chemical properties of the elements is the number of valence electrons of the considered element.
Henry Moseley found the law of the linear relationship between the wavelengths of the K line of the X-ray spectrum of the elements and their atomic number in 1913. Regarding this relationship, the atomic order number was confirmed as a descriptive element of the Periodic Table. Moseley’s law in particular helped to bridge a gap to reveal the 61th element, and thus discover the element at all. Moseley had expected that the relationship between the X-ray energy spectra and the atomic number would be linear, but it is shown that the lines are slightly convex.
In 1930 Werner Braunbeck published a paper in which he shows the regularities in the Moseley charts, formed by the ionization of the elements and their ionized states. But he breaks off his reflections 19th element (K, Kalium). From his contemplations he discharged the shielding factor of the residual electron shell on the last electron. For the Series of helium he calculated the threshold value of the shield.
In 1936 Eugenie Lisitzin has shown the ionization energies of the elements and their ions and that these are presentable as isoelectronic series and can be approximated as a second-order polynomial function of the atomic number. She showed that the isoelectronic series of ionization states of the elements exhibit certain regularities.

In this work, the structure of isoelectronic series that have been described by Mrs Lisitzin formally, are applied to the elements and their order. The isoelectronic series are considered as "dimension expansion" of the ionization of neutral elements. From the properties of the isoelectronic series, an altered periodization of elements is derived. Furthermore, the oxidation numbers of the elements justifies the periodicity which was developed from the isoelectronic series. It is also shown that the change in frequency and the occupation sequence of quantum mechanical can be brought into accord with only small modifications. The modified periodization is presented at the end of the work. I allow myself already here to point out that according to my work the periodicity from the 19th element (K, Kalium) on will be changed.

My work it is not about formulating a mathematical description of isoelectronic rows but to illustrate their effects on the periodicity of the elements.